Here are some of the more common materials that are used to make propellers:
Plastic is by far the most popular choice for propellers in the multi-rotor industry. This is mainly due to their low cost and respectable durability. Unfortunately, plastic propellers do have their downsides. For example, when you crash, it’s very likely that, without a prop guard, you’ll damage your propellers (even with prop guards there’s a chance you can damage them). The good news is that plastic propellers are dispensable, so you can break the again and again without worrying about spending a lot on new ones. When learning how to build a drone, choosing plastic propellers for your propulsion is certainly a good idea.
Now, I know what you’re probably thinking, “You can use wood to build a drone?” Absolutely! But I’ll be the first to tell you that they are no common in the drone industry. As you can probably already guess, due to the intricate machining required to produce wooden propellers, they will cost much more than plastic. On a good note, wooden propellers tend to be very durable. They won’t bend, and tend to remain in pretty good condition after light crashes. While they’re not common in the RC drone industry, you can still find them in various RC planes.
If you’re looking for something that’s super-high quality and that won’t break, then consider using carbon fiber propellers when building a drone. Just note that you will be paying top dollar for these propellers. What I love about carbon fiber propellers (I used them in a build several years back and they were amazing) is that they are very hard to break, and offer much more flex than a standard plastic propeller. If you’re a beginner who’s never built a drone before, I would stick to plastic propellers until you get a few builds under your belt.